In the page about reported speech, we talked about how to change direct speech ("I love coffee") into reported speech (Johnna said that she loved coffee), using the reporting verbs 'say', 'tell' and 'ask'. However, we can also use many other verbs to report what someone said, like 'promise', 'warn', 'advise' and 'recommend'.
Some of these verbs look a bit more complicated to use than 'say' and 'tell', but it's just a question of getting to know the verb patterns (or verb structures).
(As I'm sure you know, we can often choose if we want to use 'that' or not in English. I've put it in brackets () to show that it's optional. The meaning is exactly the same if you use 'that' or if you don't use 'that'.)
Let's look first at the verbs we've already talked about. The basic verb pattern for using 'say' for reported speech is:
say + (that) + clause
- She said (that) she had already eaten.
(The direct speech for this is "I've already eaten".)
On the other hand, with 'tell' we need to use an object, a person who we tell the information to.
tell + someone + (that) + clause
- I told John (that) I had seen the new film.
(The direct speech for this is "I've seen the new film".)
When we are reporting orders, we can also use another pattern with 'tell':
tell + someone + to + infinitive
- She told the children to go to bed.
We use 'ask' to report questions or requests. For questions we use the pattern:
ask + someone + if / question word + clause
- I asked my boss if I could leave early.
- She asked them where the station was.
For requests we use the pattern:
ask + someone + to + infinitive
- I asked Lucy to pass me the salt.
(Remember, the first two examples with 'ask' are no longer real questions, so we use the normal sentence word order. We don't use inversion. We say 'she asked them where the station was', NOT
'she asked them where was the station'. You can read more about this on the lessons about indirect questions and reported speech.)
Other reporting verbs follow a variety of patterns. There aren't any rules about which verbs follow which patterns. You need to learn each one.
(= Give someone advice. Notice the different spelling for the verb and the noun.)
Advise + someone + to + infinitive
- She advised him to see a doctor.
Advise + (that) + clause
- The staff advise that you carry water at all times.
Advise + against + verb-ing
- I'd advise against leaving early.
Agree + to + infinitive
- We agreed to meet the following day.
Agree + (that) + clause
- I agreed that the children could do their homework later.
Apologise + (to + someone) + for + verb-ing
- They apologised to us for being late.
- She apologised for forgetting the book.
Apologise (+ to + someone) + for + noun
- She apologised for the delay.
Decide + to + infinitive
- They decided to go to the cinema.
Decide + (that) + clause
- They decided that they would go to the cinema.
Encourage + someone + to + infinitive
- She encouraged him to take the exam again.
- The teacher encouraged the students to ask questions.
Explain + (that) + clause
- The teacher explained that the course was finished.
Explain + noun + to + someone
- She explained the grammar to the students.
She explained me the grammar.
Explain + question word + to + infinitive
- They explained how to buy a train ticket on the internet.
- John explained where to find the restaurant.
Explain + question word + clause
- We explained what the exams would cover.
Insist + on + verb-ing
- He insisted on paying.
Insist + (that) + clause
- He insisted that we sit down.
Promise + to + infinitive
- He promised to arrive early.
Promise + (someone) + (that) + clause
- I promised him that I wouldn't do it again.
Recommend + verb-ing
- I recommend visiting the British Museum while you're in London.
Recommend + (that) + clause
- I recommend that you visit the British Museum
Remind + someone + to + infinitive
- She reminded him to take his keys.
Remind + someone + (that) + clause
- They reminded me that there is a party tonight.
Suggest + verb-ing
- I suggest leaving soon
Suggest + (that) + clause
- I suggest that you come as soon as you can.
I suggest him to come.
Warn + someone + (not) + to + infinitive
- I warned them not to go in the water.
Warn + someone + about + something
- She warned us about the dangerous roads.
To make the verbs that we have reported negative, we need to look at the verb pattern:
- When there's a clause, we make the negative in the usual way: She said that she didn't like ice cream.
- When there's 'to + infinitive', we generally put 'not' before 'to': He promised not to do it again.
- When there's 'verb-ing', we generally put 'not' in front of it: I advise not taking the bus.
* Advanced Point
In formal English, some verbs that are followed by '(that) + clause' use the infinitive instead of a present tense verb. Some people suggest that this is a kind of subjunctive in English. You only need to worry about this in very formal writing.
Mostly, this doesn't make a difference, because the present simple form in English is often the same as the infinitive form. But when the subject is 'he', 'she' or 'it' or when the verb is 'be', we can see it clearly.
- I advise that he go to bed early. (Normally we'd expect: I advise that he goes to bed early.)
- I insist that she come now. (Normally we'd expect: I insist that she comes now.)
- They suggested that the cats be put in the garden for the night. (Normally we'd expect: They suggested that the cats are put in the garden for the night.)
Some reporting verbs may appear in more than one of the following groups because they can be used in several ways.
VERBS FOLLOWED BY "IF" OR "WHETHER"
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A "THAT"
VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER "THAT" OR AN INFINITIVE WITH "TO"
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A "THAT" CLAUSE CONTAINING SHOULD, WHICH MAY BE OMITTED, LEAVING A SUBJECT + ZERO-INFINITIVE
VERBS FOLLOWED BY A CLAUSE STARTING WITH A QUESTION WORD
VERBS FOLLOWED BY OBJECT + INFINITIVE WITH "TO"