Grammar Review

Nouns

A noun is a the name of a person, place, thing, quality, concept or action. The first letters of some nouns are capitalized to show a specific name or title (Greg). These are called proper nouns. Other nouns that are not specific do not use a capital letter (man). These are called common nouns. Nouns that have a singular and plural form are called count nouns. Nouns that only have a singular form are called non-count nouns. For example, homework is a non-count noun.

Incorrect: I have some homeworks.
Correct: I have some homework.

 Articles

“A” and “An” are used before general or non-specific count nouns such as people, animals, things and places. But they can not be used before non-count nouns. “The” is used before specific names of people, animals, things and places (both count and non-count nouns).

Incorrect: I have a homework to do tonight.
Correct: I have homework to do tonight.

 

Incorrect: I am going to Abbey.
Correct: I am going to the Abbey.

Verbs

A verb is a word that tells what the subject of the sentence does. The verb tells the action of the sentence. Sometimes the action shows movement (jump) or sometimes it shows how a thing is or that it exists (is). The verb also shows time which is called tense. The form of the verb or its tense can tell when the action takes place.

Present Simple
kiss/kisses
Past Simple
kissed
Future Simple
will kiss
Present Perfect
has/have kissed
Past Perfect
had kissed
Future Perfect
will have kissed
Present Continuous (Progressive)
is/am/are kissing
Past Continuous (Progressive)
was kissing
Future Continuous (Progressive)
will be kissing
Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive)
has/have been kissing
Past Perfect Continuous (Progressive)
had been kissing
Future Perfect Continuous (Progressive)
will have been kissing

 

If you are writing more than one sentence (a paragraph, an essay, etc), you should try to use a consistent tense.  In other words, if you begin in the past, stay in the past, do not shift to the present tense without a good reason. Constant changes in tense confuse the reader.  For example:

Incorrect: Yesterday afternoon, I played my stereo and watch TV.
Correct: Yesterday afternoon, I played my stereo and watched TV

 Modals

Grammatically, modal verbs behave in a different way from ordinary verbs.  They do not show tense and do not follow subject/verb agreement rules.  The structure of the sentence is subject + modal + second verb.

Never add -s, -es, -ed, or -ing to the second verb.

Incorrect: I can sleeping six hours tonight.
Correct: I can sleep six hours tonight.

 

Incorrect: I couldn’t work ed last night.
Correct: I couldn’t work last night
Incorrect: I couldn’t work s last night.
Correct: I couldn’t work last night.

*Modals don’t follow the subject-verb agreement rule for 3rd person singular.  They do not add s in the third person singular (he, she, it).

Incorrect: She mights go to class.
Correct: She might go to class

*Most modal verbs are followed by the verb without the infinitive (to) or the gerund (-ing).

Incorrect: Gallaudet should to build a new computer center.
Correct: Gallaudet should build a new computer center.
Incorrect: My teacher can signing well.
Correct: My teacher can sign well

 Subject-Verb Agreement
In English, the subject and verb of a sentence must agree.  In the present tense, all singular subjects except I and you require that you add ‘s’ or ‘es’ to the verb.  If the subject is plural, do not add ‘s’ or ‘es’ to the verb.

First person singular
First person plural
Second person singular/plural
Third person plural
I
we
you
they
don’t add -s to the verb (I sign.)
don’t add -s to the verb (Sue and I sign. We sign.)
don’t add -s to the verb (You sign.)
don’t add -s to the verb (Sue and Bob sign. They sign.)
Third person singular { he
she
it
add -s to the verb (Adam signs. He signs.)
add -s to the verb (Sue signs. She signs.)
add -s to the verb (A cat meows. It meows.)

Remember, most nouns use -s or -es to show plurality while verbs do not. If your sentence has an -s on the subject and an -s on the verb, your sentence is probably wrong.

Incorrect: Many students learns American Sign Language at Gallaudet.
Correct: Many students learn American Sign Language at Gallaudet

Pronoun Agreement

Pronouns are substitutes for nouns that keep writers from unnecessarily repeating words in writing.

Without Pronoun: Carol finished Carol’s paper.
With Pronoun: Carol finished her paper.

 In the above example, her takes the place of Carol.  Just like verbs and subjects must agree, pronouns have to agree with the noun or verb they are replacing.

Incorrect: A student should write their own paper.
Correct: A student should write his/her paper

 Parallelism

Words in a pair or a series should have parallel structure. Parallel structure means that if you write a sentence that uses two verb infinitives, for example, then add a third verb, all three verbs should use infinitives.  However, you only need to use the word to for the first verb.  It will automatically apply to the other verbs in the list.

Incorrect: I decided to lose weight, study more, and watching less TV.
Correct: I decided to lose weight, study more, and watch less TV

 Fragments

Every sentence must have a subject and a verb and must express a complete thought. A word group that lacks a subject or a verb and that does not express a complete thought is a fragment.

Incorrect: Because Tom ate and drank too much.
Correct: Because Tom ate and drank too much, he got sick

 Adjectives made from Verbs (-ED/-ING)

Verbs of EMOTION can become Adjectives by adding either ED or ING.

(verb)
My English class bores me.

(verb)  (adj.)
am bored by my English class.(verb)  (adj.)
The class  is boring to me.    

Verb+ED becomes an adjective when it is used to describe a person or animal that experiences an emotion You can call this adjective the Experiencer adjective.

  • One good way to remember to use ED to describe the Experiencer’s emotion is to remember that both words start with E. The Experiencer is described with ED.
Incorrect: I am interesting in sports.
Correct: I am interested in sports. (I is the Experiencer, which means that you must use ED).

 Verb+ING becomes an adjective when it is used to describe the things that cause an emotion. You can call this the Instigator (Causing) adjective.

  • One good way to remember to use ING to describe the Instigator (or Causing) adjective is to remember that both words start with I. The Instigator is described with ING.
Incorrect: The football game is excited. (This means that the game itself feels excited, which is impossible).
Correct: The football game is exciting. (This means that the football game is causing someone to feel excited)

 Commonly Confusing Words

You’re and Your

You’re is a contraction for you + are. You’re very busy today;
Your shows possession. Is that your book?

To and Too

To shows direction. I am going to work.
Too shows how much. It is too hot to work today.

 They’re and Their

They’re is a contraction of they + are. They’re going to Panama next week.
Their is a pronoun that shows possession. Their books are on the table.

 It’s and Its

It’s is a contraction of it + is. It’s a beautiful morning.
Its is a pronoun that shows possession Tell the cat to keep its paws off the table.

Whose and Who’s

Whose is a pronoun. Whose book is this?
Who’s is a contraction for who + is. Who’s there?

Advice and Advise

Advice is a noun. I need some advice on my grammar.
Advise is a verb. My teacher advised me to revise the paper.

 Effect and Affect

Effect is a noun The tax increase had an effect on the poor.
Affect is a verb. The weather affects my mood.

Word Choice

Some words can become different parts of speech by changing their endings or their placement in the sentence.  The forms of these words look almost the same, but depending on which part of speech they are, their spelling changes.

Verb Noun (thing) Noun (person) Adjective Adverb
Succeed Success   Successful Successfully
Analyze Analysis Analyst Analytical Analytically
Predict Prediction Predictor Predictable Predictably

 Some words use the same spelling for different forms of the word, but depending on how it is used in the sentence, it can mean different things.

Verb Noun (thing) Noun (person) Adjective Adverb
Love Love Lover Loving Lovingly
Challenge (A) Challenge Challenger Challenging/ed  

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