Writing as a process

(For Advanced leaners or teachers)

Writing as a process :
There are mainly 5 steps in the writing as a process:

Pre-writing
SOURCES OF INSPIRATION – How do I get ideas in the first place?
magazines/newspapers/periodicals/CD-ROM
conduct an interview based on your topic
media – radio, tv, internet
experiences
film – movies and documentaries
music
visual art – observing or creating
dreams
memories
discussion and brainstorming
responding to literature
role playing
research
imagination
personal interest inventories
class interest inventory
others

TIPS – What ways can I prewrite?

free writing
journalling
image streaming (transplant yourself
to another place or time and describe
from a first person point of view)
lists
visualization
brainstorming – individually or as a group
webbing/mapping/clustering
graphic organizers
topic or word chart

Writing
NOW THAT IT’S TIME TO WRITE . . . What do I do?

WRITING. . . ROUGH DRAFT . . . ROUGH COPY
Whatever you call it, it is still the same thing. 
Get a working copy of your paragraph or paper
so that you have something to work with.

OUR ROUGH COPY SUGGESTIONS

* Name, class and date on top right hand corner of all pages
* Number all your pages
* One staple in the top left hand corner
* Double space
* Margin to margin
* Single sided
* Pencil or pen (depending on teacher preference)
* Line space at end of page

TIPS WHEN GOING FROM PREWRITING TO WRITING

Be selective in the ideas that you include.  You don’t have to include
everything that was in your prewriting!  Pick your best ideas. 
Make sure they relate to each other and your topic.
WRITE!  WRITE!  WRITE!
Don’t stop once you start writing.  Revising and editing
come later.  Just let the ideas flow. 
Don’t count words, ask your teacher how long it should be or when
it is done.  When YOU feel that you have completed your ideas,
you are then ready to go to the next stage.
HOLD IT!  Before going to the next stage, make sure you have
enough content to work with.  If you feel that you are lacking content,
go back to your prewriting for more ideas and details.

Revising
WHAT IS REVISING? 
Revising is . . .

making decisions about how you want to improve your writing
looking at your writing from a different point of view
picking places where your writing could be clearer, more
interesting, more informative and more convincing.

METHODS

A.R.R.R. –  This method allows you to make four types of changes.

Adding
What else does the reader need to know?
Rearranging
Is the information in the most logical and most effective order?
Removing
What extra details or unnecessary bits of information are in this piece
of writing?
Replacing
What words or details could be replaced by clearer or stronger expressions?

R.A.G. – Read Around Group
~ General Rules for Read Around Groups ~

3-5 writers per group in varying ability
Make sure there are no names on the pieces of writing. 
Student work is to remain anonymous.  Photocopies work well. 
In each group, everyone reads each paper once.  Nothing is written
on the papers. This is the first read.  It is written to get a general idea
about what has been written.
During the first read, on a separate piece of paper,
each person puts them on a scale of 1-4. 
(4 – outstanding, 3 – above average, 2 – acceptable, 1 – insufficient)
Students also write comments about each piece for later discussion
with the group.
Students discuss why they assigned the score that they did.
Staying in the same group, students then revise the anonymous work
during a second reading. Students can a) read each paper and mark
suggestions on it or  b) read the piece as a group and mark the
group’s suggestions on each paper.

A.R.M.S. – Add, Remove, Move Around, Substitute

REVISING TIPS – Ask yourself these questions . . .

Can you read it outloud without stumbling?
Does every word and action count?  There should be a reason why a
character acts or speaks in a certain way. 
Is the series of events logical? Do they relate?
Is it clear what your goal or your main character’s goal is throughout the piece of writing?
Are vivid/descriptive words used to describe characters and/or events?
Is your train of thought clear?  Are there any tangents?
Do you use a variety of verbs throughout the piece?  (Something instead of “SAID”)
Is it wordy and redundant?  Are you using the same words and phrases
over and over again?
Is there a catchy introduction?  Does the conclusion leave the reader thinking?
Do supporting details support only the topic sentence of that paragraph?
Are transitional devices used throughout?
Is there a strong hook, thesis and lead-in?
Is proper format followed throughout?
Are all sentences complete or are there sentence fragments?
Is a vivid mental picture created in the reader’s mind?

Editing

WHAT IS EDITING?

Editing is . . .

spelling
capitalization
punctuation
grammar
sentence structure
subject/verb agreement
consistent verb tense
word usage

METHODS

Self Edit
Read your own work backwards.
Read the last sentence, then the second
last sentence, etc.
Does each sentence make
sense when you read it on it’s own? 
Do you see or hear any errors in the sentence?
Peer Edit
Take your friend copy and try to correct it.
Your friend will do the same with your paper.

TIPS
Be sure that every sentence has two parts :
subject (who or what)
predicate (what’s happening)
Use sentence combining words:
and, but, or, yet, so
who, whom, which, that, whose
because, although, when, if, where
and others
Use periods and commas where necessary
but do not overuse.
Do not overuse the exclamation mark!
Use a dictionary to check spelling.

Final draft
SUGGESTIONS FOR PUBLISHING/GOOD COPY:
Blue or black ink pen or word processed
Centre title on top line with a line space that follows
Name, class and date in top right hand corner
Margin to margin
Indent and/or leave a line space for paragraphs
(depending on teacher preference)
Leave a line space at the bottom of the page
Single sided
Single spaced
Neat – no scribbles or overuse of liquid paper!
Number the pages
Staple in top left hand corner
If asked for all stages of the writing process, hand in
in this order:
* good copy
* rough copy with evidence of revision and editing
* prewriting
Include marks sheet or rubric if one was given

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