Adverbs

 

Adverbs like; quickly, softly, badly, suddenly, etc.

Adverbs tells you how something happens or how somebody does something (the car stopped suddenly, the nurse was speaking softly, you must listen carefully, he understands perfectly).

Adjectives Adverb
She is very quiet. She speaks quietly.
Be polite ! Ask politely.
It was a bad game. We played badly.
You feel nervous. You reacted nervously.

 

hard, fast, late, early : These words are adjectives and adverbs.

Her job is very hard. She works very hard.
He is a fast walker. He walks very fast.
The train is late / early. The train arrived late / early.

 

good (adjective) and well (adverb)

Your book is very good. You write very well.
It was a good decision. You did very well.

 well is also an adjective (not ill = in good health) (How are you ? I am very well, thank you. And you ?).

Adverbs of degree

 ENOUGH  TOO  VERY
 Enough means a satisfactory amount or degree  Too means more than enough, an excessive amount or degree  Very means something is done to a high degree, it is usually factual
 comes after adjectives and adverbs, and before nouns  Comes before adjectives   Comes before adjectives or other adverbs
 This jacket isn’t big enough for me.We have enough money to buy our own apartment  Our apartment is too small for us   He finishes his work very quickly

Adverbs of time

 FOR  DURING  – WHILE  WHEN – WHILE
 For shows how long something happened. It is used to refer to a period of time.  Both during and while refer to a period of time in which something happens.  When and while can both be used when two things happen at the same time.
   During is used with a noun .  While is used with a subject and verb.  When is used when two short events happen at the same time.  While is used when two continuous actions happen at the same time.
 She’s in New York for a few days.  We were busy during the weekend.  We went shopping while you were sleeping.  I heard you when you opened the door.  ‘While you were studying I went out shopping.’

Passive and active voice

 In the sentence The dog chased the cat, the verb (chased) is active. If you turn it around, and say The cat was chased by the dog, the verb (was chased) is passive. You form the passive by using the verb be and the past participle of the main verb. For example, the passive of attack is be attacked, the passive of pay is be paid, and the passive of see is be seen. You can only use the passive with transitive verbs. 

WHEN TO USE AN ACTIVE VERB 

You use an active verb when you want to say that the subject of a sentence does something. For example:
She opened the window.

 WHEN TO USE A PASSIVE VERB

 You use a passive verb when you want to say that something happens to the subject of the sentence.

 For example:
President Kennedy was killed in 1963.

 You often use a passive verb when talking about the history of something. For example:
The bridge was built in the 19th century.
The company was established in 1826.

 In these cases, it is much more natural to use the passive than to find a vague, active way of expressing the sentence (such as Someone built this bridge in the 19th century.).
You often use a passive verb when you are writing about science, or when you are saying how things are made. For example:

 Hydrogen and oxygen can be easily mixed in this way.
Paper is made from wood.

 If you used an active verb here, you would have to say who does the action –
information which is not known or not important.

 If you want to say who does the action of the verb in a passive sentence, use by and then say who does it.

 President Kennedy was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald in 1963.
The bridge was designed by Brunel.

HOW TO CHANGE AN ACTIVE SENTENCE INTO A PASSIVE ONE

 There are three things you need to do in order to change an active sentence into a passive one.

 1. Move the subject of the active verb to the end of the sentence, and put by in front of it.

 2. Move the object of the active verb to the front of the sentence, so that it becomes the passive subject.

 3. Change the verb from active to passive. You do this by adding a form of the auxiliary verb be and the past participle of the main verb.

 Subject    verb        object
The dog   chased    the cat.
Subject          verb          by….
The cat    was chased    by the dog

 THE PASSIVE WITH GET

 You can also make a passive using get instead of be. This kind of passive is very common in conversation. Do not use it in formal writing. You often use this kind of passive to say that something happened suddenly to someone.

 I got sacked by my firmOR I was sacked by my firm.

 He got hit by a carOR He was hit by a car.

 You can also use the passive with get when you want to suggest that an action is more forceful or more important to you.

 I get paid on ThursdayOR I am paid on Thursday.

 We often get asked this questionOR We are often asked this question