English Verbs Tenses and Forms

THE THIRD PERSON SINGULAR of the simple present.
The basic rule is that you add “-s” to the infinitive form.

  1. to run – he runs
  2. to eat – she eats
  3. to rain – it rains

After certain infinitive endings you must add “-es.”

  1. to go – he goes
  2. to kiss – he kisses
  3. to push – he pushes
  4. to touch – he touches
  5. to box – he boxes
  6. to buzz – it buzzes

If you have a consonant plus “y,” the third person ending is “-ies.”

  1. to try – she tries
  2. to fly – it flies

Note that this is not the case if the “y” is preceded by a vowel.

  1. to play – he plays
  2. to stay – she stays

Remember that the modal auxiliaries have no “s” in the third person singular.

  1. can – he can
  2. may – she may
  3. must – it must

THE SIMPLE PAST AND THE PAST PARTICIPLE.
The general rule is to add “-ed” to the infinitive.

  1. to work – I worked – you have worked
  2. to pass – she passed – they have passed
  3. to land – we landed – they have landed

After “e” just add “-d.”

  1. to reduce – they (have) reduced
  2. to receive – we (have) received

A consonant plus “y” becomes “-ied.”

  1. to cry – she (has) cried
  2. to try – I (have) tried
  3. to reply – you (have) replied

Note that, as before, a “y” preceded by a vowel is not modified.

  1. to stay – you (have) stayed
  2. to display – they (have) displayed

After a simple, accentuated vowel followed by a single consonant, the consonant is doubled before we add “-ed.”

  1. to stop – they (have) stopped

THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
The basic rule is to add “-ing” to the infinitive.

  1. to work – working
  2. to stand – standing
  3. to play – playing
  4. to try – trying

If the infinitive ends in a consonant plus “e,” we normally drop the “e” before adding “-ing.”

  1. to smile – smiling
  2. to hope – hoping

But don’t forget the following cases.

  1. to be – being
  2. to die – dying
  3. to lie – lying
  4. to see – seeing

As before, the consonant is doubled after a simple, accentuated vowel followed by a single consonant:

  • to stop – stopping

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