Quantifiers

much, many, a little, a few

much or many

much: uncountable nouns (milk, marmalade, money, time etc.)
many: countable nouns (bottles of milk, jars of marmalade, dollars, minutes etc.)

Examples:
How much money have you got?
How many dollars have you got?

a little or a few

a little: non countable nouns (milk, marmalade, money, time etc.)
a few: countable nouns (bottles of milk, jars of marmalade, dollars, minutes etc.)

Examples:
He has a little money left.
He has a few dollars left.

some, any

some: affirmative statements, offers, requests and in questions when you expect the answer “yes”

any: negative statements, questions

Have you got any bananas? No, we haven’t got any. But we’ve got some oranges.

something, anything and other compounds with some/any

Compounds with some and any

The compounds with some and any are used like the single words some/any.

Compounds Examples
something
anything
There is something wrong with our car.
someone
anyone*
There is someone at the door.
somebody
anybody*
I would like to be somebody.
someday Someday he’ll be rich.
sometime
anytime
We saw her sometime last month.
sometimes I sometimes take the bus to school.
someplace
anyplace
somewhere
anywhere
Can’t you sing somewhere else?
somehow
anyhow
someway
anyway
She looked ill, somehow.
anymore I can’t help you anymore.

* There is no much difference between someone/anyone and somebody/anybody.

Examples:
There’s someone at the door.
I’d like to be somebody.

Pronouns

Personal pronouns, Possessive determiners, Possessive pronouns

Personal pronouns Possessive determiners Possessive pronouns
as subject
(nominative)
as object
(accusative and dative)
I me     my mine
you you    your yours
he him   his his
she her her hers
it it its its
we us our ours
you you your yours
they them their theirs
1 2 3 4
We have some books. The books are for us. These are our books. The books are ours.

Reflexive pronouns

A reflexive pronoun is a special kind of pronoun. It is usually used when the object of a sentence is the same as the subject, as you will see below. Each personal pronoun (such as I, you, and she) has its own reflexive form. This introduction will explain what the different forms of reflexive pronouns are, and when they are used.

The forms of reflexive pronouns

Personal Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun
I myself
you (singular) yourself
you (plural) yourselves
he himself
she herself
it itself
we ourselves
they themselves

When to use a reflexive pronoun

Reflexive pronouns are used in three main situations.

  1. Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object are the same.
    I hurt myself.
    The band call themselves “Dire Straits”.
    He shot himself.
  2. They are used as the object of a preposition, when the subject and the object are the same.
    I bought a present for myself.
    She did it by herself. (She did it alone.)
    That man is talking to himself.
  3. They are used when you want to emphasize the subject.
    I’ll do it myself. (No one else will help me.)
    They ate all the food themselves. (No one else had any.)

Relative clauses with who/which

who: when we talk about people
which: when we talk about things
whose: instead of his/her or their

We also use that for who/which.

Gerund and Infinitive

Gerund and Infinitive (no difference in meaning)

We use the Gerund or the Infinitive after the following verbs:
begin He began talking.
He began to talk.
continue They continue smoking.
They continue to smoke.
hate Do you hate working on Saturdays?
Do you hate to work on Saturdays?
like I like swimming.
I like to swim.
love She loves painting.
She loves to paint.
prefer Pat prefers walking home.
Pat prefers to walk home.
start They start singing.
They start to sing.

 

We use the Gerund or the Infinitive after the following verbs. There are two possible structures after these verbs.
Gerund: verb + -ing
Infinitive: verb + person + to-infinitive
advise They advise walking to town.
They advise us to walk to town.
allow They do not allow smoking here.
They do not allow us to smoke here.
encourage They encourage doing the test.
They encourage us to do the test.
permit They do not permit smoking here.
They do not permit us to smoke here.

We use the following structures with the word recommend:

recommend They recommend walking to town.
They recommend that we walk to town.

Gerund and Infinitive – difference in meaning

Some verbs have different meaning. (when used with Gerund or Infinitive)

  GERUND INFINITIVE
forget He’ll never forget spending so much money on his first computer. Don’t forget to spend money on the tickets.

 

  GERUND INFINITIVE
go on Go on reading the text. Go on to read the text.

 

  GERUND INFINITIVE
mean You have forgotten your homework again. That means phoning your mother. I meant to phone your mother, but my mobile didn’t work.

 

  GERUND INFINITIVE
remember I remember switching off the lights when I went on holiday. Remember to switch off the lights when you go on holiday.

 

  GERUND INFINITIVE
stop Stop reading the text. Stop to read the text.

 

  GERUND INFINITIVE
try Why don’t you try running after the dog?      I tried to run after the dog, but I was too slow.

Infinitive

The Infinitive with to

after: the first Gagarin was the first to fly in a spaceship.
the last Peter was the last to watch the film.
the next He is the next to get his passport.

 

after: adjectives I’m happy to be here.
It’s better not to smoke.

 

after: certain verbs
(agree, choose, forget, hope, learn, promise, regret, want, …)
I learn to drive a car.

 

after: question words I don’t know what to say.
Can you tell me how to get to the bus stop?

 

after: want/would like I want you to help me.

 

verb + object + to-infinitive I helped my dad to clean the car.

NOTE!!!

I want to help you. I want you to help me.
The Infinitive without to

after auxiliaries/modals

can He can run very fast.
could As a boy he could run very fast.
may I may fly to Africa this summer.
might I might fly to Africa this summer.
must I must go now.
mustn’t You mustn’t smoke here.
needn’t You needn’t go.
shall We shall sing a song.
should We should sing a song.
will She will cook a meal for his birthday.
would She would cook a meal for his birthday.

after to do

do I don’t know.

after the following expressions:

had better You had better clean up your room.
would rather Susan would rather study for her exam tomorrow.
would sooner I would sooner read a book than watch this film.
why not Why not ask your neighbour for help?
why should we Why should we go by car?
why should we not Why should we not go by car?

after verbs of perception + object (action has finished):

feel She feels the rain fall on her face.
hear I heard Peter sing a song.
notice Mandy noticed the boy climb the tree.
see They saw him climb up the roof.
watch He watched the thieves steal a car.

after let + object:

let Sandy let her child go out alone.
Mother let her daughter decide on her own.
let’s Let’s go for a walk through the park.

after make + object:

make She made Peggy and Samantha clean the room.

Gerund

Use

-ing form used as a noun

Form

infinitive + -ing

Examples

Going to parties is fun. I enjoy reading.
Gerund is subject Gerund is object

Gerund after prepositions (adjectives)

adjective + preposition

We use the Gerund after the following phrases:
afraid of They are afraid of losing the match.
angry about/at Pat is angry about walking in the rain.
bad at
good at
John is good at working in the garden.
clever at He is clever at skateboarding.
crazy about The girl is crazy about playing tennis.
disappointed about/at He is disappointed about seeing such a bad report.
excited about We are excited about making our own film.
famous for Sandy is famous for singing songs.
fed up with I’m fed up with being treated as a child.
fond of Hannah is fond of going to parties.
glad about She is glad about getting married again.
happy about/at The children are not happy about seeing a doctor.
interested in Are you interested in writing poems?
keen on Joe is keen on drawing.
proud of She is proud of riding a snowboard.
sick of We’re sick of sitting around like this.
sorry about/for He’s sorry for eating in the lesson.
tired of I’m tired of waiting for you.
used to She is used to smoking.
worried about I’m worried about making mistakes.

adjective + preposition

We use the Gerund after the following phrases:
afraid of They are afraid of losing the match.
angry about/at Pat is angry about walking in the rain.
bad at
good at
John is good at working in the garden.
clever at He is clever at skateboarding.
crazy about The girl is crazy about playing tennis.
disappointed about/at He is disappointed about seeing such a bad report.
excited about We are excited about making our own film.
famous for Sandy is famous for singing songs.
fed up with I’m fed up with being treated as a child.
fond of Hannah is fond of going to parties.
glad about She is glad about getting married again.
happy about/at The children are not happy about seeing a doctor.
interested in Are you interested in writing poems?
keen on Joe is keen on drawing.
proud of She is proud of riding a snowboard.
sick of We’re sick of sitting around like this.
sorry about/for He’s sorry for eating in the lesson.
tired of I’m tired of waiting for you.
used to She is used to smoking.
worried about I’m worried about making mistakes.

Gerund after prepositions (nouns)

noun + preposition

We use the Gerund after the following nouns:
advantage of What is the advantage of farming over hunting?
chance of There’s a chance of catching a cold these days.
choice between There’s a choice between flying to London Heathrow or Stansted.
danger of Peggy is in danger of making a mistake.
difficulty in He has difficulty in sending SMS.
doubt about He is in doubt about buying the correct software for his computer system.
hope of There’s little hope of catching Schumacher’s Ferrari.
idea of I like the idea of setting up a new email account.
interest in There’s no interest in writing letters.
method of This is a simple method of finding solutions.
opportunity of There’s some opportunity of bringing her parents together again.
possibility of These new wheels offer the possibility of riding tubeless.
problem of He has the problem of swimming too slow.
reason for There’s a real reason for winning the contest.
risk of There’s a risk of digging too deep.
trouble for He was in trouble for stealing.
way of This is a new way of building a wall.

Gerund after prepositions (verbs)

verb + preposition

Exception: to
Here we use the phrase:
looking forward to + Gerund

Example:
I’m looking forward to seeing you soon.

We use the Gerund after the following phrases:
accuse of They were accused of breaking into a shop.
agree with I agree with playing darts.
apologize for They apologize for being late.
believe in She doesn’t believe in getting lost in the wood.
blame for The reporter is blamed for writing bad stories.
complain about She complains about bullying.
concentrate on Do you concentrate on reading or writing?
congratulate sb. on I wanted to congratulate you on making such a good speech.
cope with He is not sure how to cope with getting older.
decide against They decided against stealing the car.
depend on Success may depend on becoming more patient.
dream about/of Sue dreams of being a pop star.
feel like They feel like going to bed.
get used to You must get used to working long hours.
insist on The girls insisted on going out with Mark.
look forward to I’m looking forward to seeing you soon.
prevent sb. from sth. How can I prevent Kate from working in this shop?
rely on sth. He doesn’t rely on winning in the casino.
succeed in How then can I succeed in learning chemistry?
specialize in The firm specialized in designing websites.
stop sb. from I stopped Andrew from smoking.
talk about/of They often talk about travelling to New Zealand.
think of Frank thinks of playing chess.
warn sb. against We warned them against using this computer.
worry about The patient worries about having the check-up.

Adverbs

The adverbs in English

Adverbs tell us in what way someone does something. Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.

Adjectives tell us something about a person or a thing. Adjectives can modify nouns or pronouns.

Adjective Adverb
Mandy is a careful girl. Mandy drives carefully.
Mandy is very careful.  

Mandy is a careful driver. This sentence is about Mandy, the driver, so use the adjective.

Mandy drives carefully. This sentence is about her way of driving, so use the adverb.


Form

Adjective + -ly

Adjective Adverb
dangerous dangerously
careful carefully
nice nicely
easy easily
horrible horribly
electronic electronically
irregular forms
good well
fast fast
hard hard

Tip: Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs.

adjectives ending in -ly: friendly, silly, lonely, ugly
nouns, ending in -ly: ally, bully, Italy, melancholy
verbs, ending in -ly: apply, rely, supply

There is no adverb for an andjective ending in -ly.


Types of adverbs

1) Adverbs of manner
quickly
kindly

2) Adverbs of degree
very
rather

3) Adverbs of frequency
often
sometimes

4) Adverbs of time
now
today

5) Adverbs of place
here
nowhere